Ancient Persian time line


B.C. 1500 (?)-Teachings of Zoroaster. 1000 (?)-The Persians and Medes enter Persia from the north and gradually take possession of it. 750 (?)-Possible rule of Achaemenes in Persia, the first Persian king. 700 (?)-Deioces said to have gathered the Medes into a single kingdom. 647 (?)-Phraortes, the Median leader, rules also over Persia and Elam; the attacks the Assyrians and is slain. 625-Cyaxares, son of Phraortes, rallies the Medes after his father's defeat; he attacks Nineveh. He defeats the Scyths. 610-He unites with Babylon in a third war on Assyria. 607-He destroys Nineveh, and establishes a Median Empire. 593-He wars against Lydia. 585-Astyages succeeds Cyaxares as the Median monarch. 553-Cyrus, the vassal king of Persia. revolts against Astyages. 550-Cyrus conquers Ecbatana, the Median capital, and becomes ruler of the united Medes and Persians. The Persian Empire begins. 548-Lydia, Egypt, Babylon, and Sparta unite against Cyrus; he attacks Lydia. 546-He storms Sardis, the Lydian capital, and conquers Croesus, its king. 545-Cyrus completely subjugates Asia Minor and begins the conquest of central Asia. 539-Returning from his eastern victories, he attacks Babylon. 538-Cyrus conquers Babylon. 529-Death of Cyrus; his son Cambyses slays his other son Smerdis, and sets out to conquer Egypt. 525-Battle of Pelusium and overthrow of Egypt. 524- loses his armies in the desert. 522-Revolt of the false Smerdis; Cambyses commits suicide. 521-Darius overthrows the false Smerdis and reconquers the revolted provinces. 515-Darius organizes the Persian empire; he invades European Scythia. 490-The Greeks repel the Persians at Marathon. 485-Darius is succeeded by Xerxes. 480-The great invasion of Greece by Xerxes repelled at Salamis; Xerxes retires to Persepolis. 479-The Persians driven from Greece by the defeats of Plataea and Mycale. 470-Repeated naval defeats at the hands of Greeks. 465-Xerxes assassinated; the rule of the palace officials begins. 460-Egypt rebels, but is reconquered after six years of war. 405-Egypt wins independence. 401-Cyrus, a Persian prince, fights for the empire by the aid of Greek mercenaries; he is defeated; retreat of the "ten thousand" Greeks under Xenophon. 365-Asia Minor revolts from Persia. 340-Artaxerxes III. reconquers Egypt. 336-Philip of Macedon invades the Persian empire; he dies. 334-Alexander of Macedon invades the Persian empire, wins Asia Minor by the battle of Granicus. 333-Alexander defeats the Persian king Darius at Issus, and captures Tyre. 331-Final overthrow of the Persians by Alexander at Arbela; Persepolis captured and burned. 323-Alexander dies at Babylon and his generals struggle for his empire. 312-The general Seleucus secures Persia and establishes the Greek-Persian kingdom of the Seleucidae. 250-The Parthians conquer Persia.

A.D. 226-The Persians under Artaxerxes revolt against Parthia. 227-Artaxerxes overthrows the Parthians at Hormuz and establishes the Second Persian Empire. He restores the religion of Zoroaster and persecutes Christianity. 232-He annihilates a Roman army led by the Emperor Severus. 240-Artaxerxes resigns his throne and is succeeded by Sapor I. 258-Sapor conquers Mesopotamia. 260-He defeats the Romans and captures the Emperor Valerian. 273-Varaharan I. Persecutes the Manichees and the Christians. 277-Varahran II. is defeated by the Emperor Probus, and makes peace. 298-The Emperor Galerius conquers Mesopotamia; peace with Diocletian. 326-Sapor II. proscribes Christianity. 337-He makes war successfully with Rome for the lost provinces. 363-The Emperor Julian invades Persia and is slain; his successor, Jovian, purchases his retreat by surrendering provinces. 365-Sapor annexes Armenia. 420-Varahran V. persecutes Christians. 421-He conquers Arabia Felix. 422-He makes peace with the Eastern Empire for 100 years. 430-32-Wars with Huns, Turks, etc. 531-d79-Choroes I. king; long wars with Justinian and his successors. 541-Belisarius meets the first defeat of his career from the Persians; defeats them in turn. 550-Siege of Petra. 603-Chosroes II. renews the war with success. 614-16-Egypt and Asia Minor subdued. 627-Chosroes defeated by the Emperor Heraclius; put to death by his own son. 628-Kobad II. king; murders all his male relatives. 630-The daughters of Chosroes, reign; terrible pestilence. 632-Isdigerd III., a child, the last of the Persian emperors. 633-The empire assailed by the Arabs. 636-Four day's battle at Kadisiyeh. 641-Final destruction of Persian power in the battle of Nehavend, called by the Arabs the "victory of Victories." 651-Death of Isdigerd. 661-Persian becomes the seat of the Shiite or Fatimite Mahometans. 1038-Persian subdued by Togrul Beg and the Seljukian Turks. 1194-The Turks are expelled. 1223-Persia subdued by Genghis Khan and the Mongols. 1345-Bagdad made the capital. 1399-Persia ravaged by Timur. 1468-Persia conquered by the Turcomans. 1499-Ismail, a native Persian, expels the Turcomans, and establishes the Sophi dynasty of Shiite Mahometans. 1586--1628-Reign of Shah Abbass, the Great. 1590-Ispahan made the capital. 1638-The Turks take Bagdad; dreadful massacre. 1722-The Afghans seize Persia. 1727-Nadir Kuli drives them out. 1732-He assumes the throne, conquers Afghanistan and invades India. 1747-Nadir assassinated. 1783-Georgia revolts to Russia. 1794-The present dynasty established by Aga-Mohammed; war with Russia. 1796-Teheran made the capital. 1813-Georgia given up to Russia. 1825-27-War with Russia. 1837-Siege of Herat. 1856-Rupture with England through the Persians taking Herat; war declared; Persians yield. 1857-Peace ratified at Teheran. 1858-The Shah reorganizes the government; strong British influence in Persia. 1867-Electric telegraph introduced. 1888-First railway constructed in Persia, from Teheran to Shah-Abdul-Azim, opened. The river Karun decreed open to all nations by the intervention of England. 1893-Revolt of the Barharloos suppressed; great earthquake at Kuchan, 12,000 deaths. 1895-Kuchan rebuilt, and again destroyed by earthquake, 11,000 lives lost. 1896-The Shah shot by an assassin; succeeded by prince Muzaffir-al-Din, his son. 1900-The Shah visits the European capitals; an attempt to assassinate him made, near Paris.

1905-The Persians revolt against the corruption of Muzaffir's officials and demand a constitutional government. 1906-An assembly convened. 1907-A constitution established; the Shah dies; his successor Mohammed Ali opposes the constitution; his vizier assassinated. 1908-Mohammed Ali drives out the parliament and abolishes the constitution; Tabriz and other cities revolt; Tabriz besieged. 1909-Revolutionists capture Teheran, restore the constitution and drive the Shah into exile. His little son Ahmed is made Shah under a regent. 1910-Morgan Shuster, an American, undertakes the financial reform of Persia. 1911-The ex-Shah Mohammed Ali invades the country; he is driven out after several battles. The Russians demand the expulsion of Mr. Shuster; the Persian parliament refuses; the Russians invade Persia and seize Tabriz after sharp fighting; many Persians slain. The Persian cabinet dismisses the parliament and submits to Russia. 1912-Mr. Shuster, driven from his post, returns to America. 1913-England and Russia consolidate their power over Persia.

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