Ancient Persian time line





CHRONOLOGICAL OUTLINE OF PERSIAN HISTORY

B.C. 1500 (?)-Teachings of Zoroaster. 1000 (?)-The Persians and Medes enter Persia from the north and gradually take possession of it. 750 (?)-Possible rule of Achaemenes in Persia, the first Persian king. 700 (?)-Deioces said to have gathered the Medes into a single kingdom. 647 (?)-Phraortes, the Median leader, rules also over Persia and Elam; the attacks the Assyrians and is slain. 625-Cyaxares, son of Phraortes, rallies the Medes after his father's defeat; he attacks Nineveh. He defeats the Scyths. 610-He unites with Babylon in a third war on Assyria. 607-He destroys Nineveh, and establishes a Median Empire. 593-He wars against Lydia. 585-Astyages succeeds Cyaxares as the Median monarch. 553-Cyrus, the vassal king of Persia. revolts against Astyages. 550-Cyrus conquers Ecbatana, the Median capital, and becomes ruler of the united Medes and Persians. The Persian Empire begins. 548-Lydia, Egypt, Babylon, and Sparta unite against Cyrus; he attacks Lydia. 546-He storms Sardis, the Lydian capital, and conquers Croesus, its king. 545-Cyrus completely subjugates Asia Minor and begins the conquest of central Asia. 539-Returning from his eastern victories, he attacks Babylon. 538-Cyrus conquers Babylon. 529-Death of Cyrus; his son Cambyses slays his other son Smerdis, and sets out to conquer Egypt. 525-Battle of Pelusium and overthrow of Egypt. 524- loses his armies in the desert. 522-Revolt of the false Smerdis; Cambyses commits suicide. 521-Darius overthrows the false Smerdis and reconquers the revolted provinces. 515-Darius organizes the Persian empire; he invades European Scythia. 490-The Greeks repel the Persians at Marathon. 485-Darius is succeeded by Xerxes. 480-The great invasion of Greece by Xerxes repelled at Salamis; Xerxes retires to Persepolis. 479-The Persians driven from Greece by the defeats of Plataea and Mycale. 470-Repeated naval defeats at the hands of Greeks. 465-Xerxes assassinated; the rule of the palace officials begins. 460-Egypt rebels, but is reconquered after six years of war. 405-Egypt wins independence. 401-Cyrus, a Persian prince, fights for the empire by the aid of Greek mercenaries; he is defeated; retreat of the "ten thousand" Greeks under Xenophon. 365-Asia Minor revolts from Persia. 340-Artaxerxes III. reconquers Egypt. 336-Philip of Macedon invades the Persian empire; he dies. 334-Alexander of Macedon invades the Persian empire, wins Asia Minor by the battle of Granicus. 333-Alexander defeats the Persian king Darius at Issus, and captures Tyre. 331-Final overthrow of the Persians by Alexander at Arbela; Persepolis captured and burned. 323-Alexander dies at Babylon and his generals struggle for his empire. 312-The general Seleucus secures Persia and establishes the Greek-Persian kingdom of the Seleucidae. 250-The Parthians conquer Persia.

A.D. 226-The Persians under Artaxerxes revolt against Parthia. 227-Artaxerxes overthrows the Parthians at Hormuz and establishes the Second Persian Empire. He restores the religion of Zoroaster and persecutes Christianity. 232-He annihilates a Roman army led by the Emperor Severus. 240-Artaxerxes resigns his throne and is succeeded by Sapor I. 258-Sapor conquers Mesopotamia. 260-He defeats the Romans and captures the Emperor Valerian. 273-Varaharan I. Persecutes the Manichees and the Christians. 277-Varahran II. is defeated by the Emperor Probus, and makes peace. 298-The Emperor Galerius conquers Mesopotamia; peace with Diocletian. 326-Sapor II. proscribes Christianity. 337-He makes war successfully with Rome for the lost provinces. 363-The Emperor Julian invades Persia and is slain; his successor, Jovian, purchases his retreat by surrendering provinces. 365-Sapor annexes Armenia. 420-Varahran V. persecutes Christians. 421-He conquers Arabia Felix. 422-He makes peace with the Eastern Empire for 100 years. 430-32-Wars with Huns, Turks, etc. 531-d79-Choroes I. king; long wars with Justinian and his successors. 541-Belisarius meets the first defeat of his career from the Persians; defeats them in turn. 550-Siege of Petra. 603-Chosroes II. renews the war with success. 614-16-Egypt and Asia Minor subdued. 627-Chosroes defeated by the Emperor Heraclius; put to death by his own son. 628-Kobad II. king; murders all his male relatives. 630-The daughters of Chosroes, reign; terrible pestilence. 632-Isdigerd III., a child, the last of the Persian emperors. 633-The empire assailed by the Arabs. 636-Four day's battle at Kadisiyeh. 641-Final destruction of Persian power in the battle of Nehavend, called by the Arabs the "victory of Victories." 651-Death of Isdigerd. 661-Persian becomes the seat of the Shiite or Fatimite Mahometans. 1038-Persian subdued by Togrul Beg and the Seljukian Turks. 1194-The Turks are expelled. 1223-Persia subdued by Genghis Khan and the Mongols. 1345-Bagdad made the capital. 1399-Persia ravaged by Timur. 1468-Persia conquered by the Turcomans. 1499-Ismail, a native Persian, expels the Turcomans, and establishes the Sophi dynasty of Shiite Mahometans. 1586--1628-Reign of Shah Abbass, the Great. 1590-Ispahan made the capital. 1638-The Turks take Bagdad; dreadful massacre. 1722-The Afghans seize Persia. 1727-Nadir Kuli drives them out. 1732-He assumes the throne, conquers Afghanistan and invades India. 1747-Nadir assassinated. 1783-Georgia revolts to Russia. 1794-The present dynasty established by Aga-Mohammed; war with Russia. 1796-Teheran made the capital. 1813-Georgia given up to Russia. 1825-27-War with Russia. 1837-Siege of Herat. 1856-Rupture with England through the Persians taking Herat; war declared; Persians yield. 1857-Peace ratified at Teheran. 1858-The Shah reorganizes the government; strong British influence in Persia. 1867-Electric telegraph introduced. 1888-First railway constructed in Persia, from Teheran to Shah-Abdul-Azim, opened. The river Karun decreed open to all nations by the intervention of England. 1893-Revolt of the Barharloos suppressed; great earthquake at Kuchan, 12,000 deaths. 1895-Kuchan rebuilt, and again destroyed by earthquake, 11,000 lives lost. 1896-The Shah shot by an assassin; succeeded by prince Muzaffir-al-Din, his son. 1900-The Shah visits the European capitals; an attempt to assassinate him made, near Paris.

1905-The Persians revolt against the corruption of Muzaffir's officials and demand a constitutional government. 1906-An assembly convened. 1907-A constitution established; the Shah dies; his successor Mohammed Ali opposes the constitution; his vizier assassinated. 1908-Mohammed Ali drives out the parliament and abolishes the constitution; Tabriz and other cities revolt; Tabriz besieged. 1909-Revolutionists capture Teheran, restore the constitution and drive the Shah into exile. His little son Ahmed is made Shah under a regent. 1910-Morgan Shuster, an American, undertakes the financial reform of Persia. 1911-The ex-Shah Mohammed Ali invades the country; he is driven out after several battles. The Russians demand the expulsion of Mr. Shuster; the Persian parliament refuses; the Russians invade Persia and seize Tabriz after sharp fighting; many Persians slain. The Persian cabinet dismisses the parliament and submits to Russia. 1912-Mr. Shuster, driven from his post, returns to America. 1913-England and Russia consolidate their power over Persia.






Support this site and add value to yours by linking to this page. Just copy the text or HTML below and paste into your web site. Thank you!

Read about Ancient Persian time line in the The Story of the Greatest Nations and the Worlds Famous Events Vol 1

Help us improve and/or update this article. Please send suggested text to update@publicbookshelf.com. For submission Terms and Conditions, click here.