The first process is clarifying, which is done thus: Break the white of an egg into a preserving pan; put to it 4 quarts of water and beat it with a whisk to a froth. Then put in 12 pounds of sugar, mix all together and set it over the fire. When it boils put in a little cold water, and proceed as often as necessary till the scum rises thick on the top. Then remove it from the fire, and when it is settled take off the scum and pass it through a straining bag. If the sugar should not appear very fine, boil it again before straining it.
_To Candy Sugar._
After having completed the above first process put what quantity is wanted over the fire, and boil it till it is smooth enough. This is known by dipping the skimmer into the sugar and touching it between the forefinger and thumb, and immediately on opening them a small thread will be observed drawn between, which will crystallize and break, and remain in a drop on the thumb, which will be a sign of its gaining some degree of smoothness. Boil it again and it will draw into a larger string, it is now called bloom sugar, and must be boiled longer than in the former process. To try its forwardness dip again the skimmer shaking off the sugar into the pan; then blow with the mouth strongly through the holes, and if bubbles go through, it has acquired the second degree; to prove if the liquid has arrived at the state called feathered sugar, re-dip the skimmer and shake it over the pan, then give it a sudden flirt behind, and the sugar will fly off like feathers.
It now arrives at the state called crackled sugar, to obtain which the mass must be boiled longer than in the preceding degree; then dip a stick in it and put it directly into a pan of cold water, draw off the sugar which hangs to the stick in the water, and if it turns hard and snaps it has acquired the proper degree of crystallization; if otherwise, boil it again until it acquires that brittleness.
The last stage of refining this article is called caramel sugar, to obtain which it must be boiled longer than in any of the preceding methods; prove it by dipping a stick first into the sugar and then into cold water, and the moment it touches the latter it will, if matured, snap like glass. Be careful that the fire is not too fierce, as by flaming up the sides of the pan it will burn, discolor and spoil the sugar.
Put into a pan syrup enough of clarified sugar to fill the mould; boil it until it comes to the state called small feather; skim it well; take the pan from the fire and pour it into a small quantity of spirits sufficient to make it sparkle; let it rest till the skin which is the candy rises on the surface; take it off with a skimmer and pour it directly into the mould, which keep in the stove at 90 heat fire eight days; then strain the candy by a hole, slanting the mould on a basin or pan to receive the drainings; let it drain till it is perfectly dry, then loosen the paper by moistening it with warm water; warm it all round near the fire and turn the candy by striking it hard on the table. Put it on a sieve in the stove to finish drying it, but do not touch it while there, and keep up an equal heat, otherwise there will be only a mush instead of a candy. Spirits of wine will take off grease and not affect the candy) as it soon evaporates.
_To Make Barley Sugar._
Take a quantity of clarified sugar in that state that on dipping the finger into the pan the sugar which adheres to it will break with a slight noise; this is called crack. When the sugar is near this put in 2 or 3 drops of lemon-juice, or a little vinegar to prevent its graining. When it has come to the crack take it off instantly and dip the pan in cold water to prevent its burning, let it stand a little, and then pour it on a marble, which must be previously rubbed with oil. Cut the sugar into small pieces, when it will be ready for use. One drop of citron will flavor a considerable quantity.
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