Natural red dyes

The coloring matters employed for dyeing red are archil, madder, carthamus, kermes, cochineal, and Brazilwood.

_To Dye Woollens Red, Crimson, and Scarlet._

Coarse woollen stuffs are dyed red with madder or archil, but fine cloth is almost exclusively dyed with cochineal, though the color which it receives from kermes is much more durable. Brazil-wood is scarcely used, except as an auxiliary, because the color which it imparts to wool is not permanent.

Wool is dyed crimson, by first impregnating it with alumine by means of an alum bath, and then boiling it in a decoction of cochineal till it has acquired the wished-for color. The crimson will be finer if the tin-mordant is substituted for alum; indeed, it is usual with dyers to add a little bichloride when they want fine crimsons. The addition of archil and potass to the cochineal both renders the crimson darker and gives it more bloom, but the bloom very soon vanishes. For paler crimsons, one-half of the cochineal is withdrawn, and madder substituted in its place.

Wool may be died scarlet by first boiling it in a solution of protochloride of tin, then dyeing it pale yellow with quercitron bark, and afterwards crimson with cochineal, for scarlet is a compound color, consisting of crimson mixed with a little yellow.

_To Carry the Color into the Body of the Cloth._

Make the moistened cloth pass through between rollers placed within at the bottom of the dye-vat, so that the web passing from one windlass through the dye-vat, and being strongly compressed by the rollers in its passage to another windlass, all the remaining water is driven out, and is replaced by the coloring liquid, so as to receive color into its very centre. The winding should be continued backwards and forwards from one windlass to the other, and through the rolling-press, till the dye is of sufficient intensity.

_To Dye Silks Red, Crimson, etc._

Silk is usually dyed red with cochineal or carthamus, and sometimes with Brazil-wood. Kermes does not answer for silk; madder is scarcely ever used for that purpose, because it does not yield a color bright enough. Archil is employed to give silk a bloom, but it is scarcely ever used by itself, unless when the color wanted is lilac.

Silk may be dyed crimson by steeping it in a solution of alum, and then dyeing it in the usual way in a cochineal bath.

The colors known by the names of poppy, cherry, rose, and flesh-color, are given to silk by means of carthamus. The process consists merely in keeping the silk as long as it extracts any color in an alkaline solution of carthamus, into which as much lemon-juice as gives it a fine cherry-red color, has been poured.

Silk cannot be dyed a full scarlet, but a color approaching to scarlet may be given to it by first impregnating the stuff with protochloride of tin, and afterwards dyeing it in a bath composed of 4 parts of cochineal and 4 parts of quercitron hark. To give the color more body, both the mordant and the dye may be repeated.

A color approaching to scarlet may be given to silk by first dyeing it in crimson, then dyeing it with carthamus, and lastly yellow, without heat

_To Dye Linens and Cottons Red. Scarlet, etc._

Cotton and linen are dyed red with madder. The process was borrowed from the East; hence the color is often called Adrianople, or Turkey red. The cloth is first impregnated with oil, then with galls, and lastly with alum. It is then boiled for an hour in a decoction of madder which is commonly mixed with a quantity of blood. After the cloth is dyed it is plunged into a soda lye, in order to brighten the color. The red given by this process is very permanent, and when properly conducted it is exceedingly beautiful. The whole difficulty consists in the application of the mordant, which is by far the most complicated employed in the whole art of dyeing.

Solferino, aniline green, etc., are obtained from coal tar. The silk is dyed without mordant.

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