How to make tobacco pipes?

These require a very fine, tenacious, and refractory clay, which is either naturally of a perfectly white color, or, if it have somewhat of a gray cast will necessarily burn white. A clay of this kind must contain no calcareous or ferruginous earth, and must also be carefully deprived of any sand it may contain by washing. It ought to possess besides, the property of shrinking but little in the fire. If it should not prove sufficiently ductile, it may be meliorated by the admixture of another sort. Last of all, it is beaten, kneaded, ground, washed, and sifted, till it acquires the requisite degree of fineness and ductility. When, after this preparation, the clay has obtained a due degree of ductility, it is rolled out in small portions to the usual length of a pipe, perforated with the wire, and put, together with the wire, into a brass mould, rubbed over with oil, to give it its external form; after which it is fixed into a vice, and the hollow part of the head formed with a stopper. The pipes, thus brought into form, are cleared of the redundant clay that adheres to the seams, a rim or border is made round the head, they are then marked with an iron stamp upon the heel, and the surfaces smoothed and polished. When they are well dried, they are put into boxes, and baked in a furnace.

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