Hard soaps are made by boiling oils or fats with a lye of caustic soda. In soft soaps the lye is potash. Resin is used in yellow soaps, as it saves fat. Silicate of soda is now frequently used instead; it gives a white soap, which has no offensive smell, and has not the stickiness of resin soap. Prentiss' Washing and Scouring Solution is pure silicate of soda. Besides refuse fat, the palm and cocoa-nut oils are largely used as a basis for soap. Castile soap is made from olive oil, and is mottled by iron.
Add 3 galls. of rain or other soft water to 1 lb. of saponified or concentrated lye; boil it and put into it 4 lbs. of tallow or soap-fat. When the solution becomes clear, add 12 galls. more of water. It is ready for use when cold.
Cut the soap into thin shavings, and heat it with enough water until liquefied. Let it cool to 135 Fahr., and add the coloring matter and perfumes.
To 1 cwt. of the best hard curd soap add 20 of oz. oil of bitter almonds, or essence of Mirban (p. 291).
Put into a copper vessel, placed in boiling water, 20 lbs. of white curd soap and 30 lbs. of olive oil soap, both cut into thin shavings; add 5 lbs. of soft water, or rosewater; keep the heat below boiling until the soap is uniformly liquified, and then add 12 oz. of finely-sifted vermillion, or enough to give the required color. Withdraw from the fire and, when sufficiently cool, add 3 1/2 oz. otto of roses, 1/2 oz. oil of cloves, 1/2 oz. oil of cinnamon, and 2 1/2 oz. oil of bergamot. For cheap soap use less perfume.
White curd soap, 1 1/2 lbs.; Windsor soap, 1/2 lb. Cut into shavings and liquefy as before directed, then add 4 oz. of honey, and keep it melted until most of the water is evaporated. Perfume with any of the essential oils.
Are made by beating up soaps, liquefied as before directed, so as to incorporate a certain quantity of air.
Are made by dissolving white soap in alcohol and evaporating. By the use of a still most of the alcohol may be recovered. They are made round by moulding with a drinkingglass, and then are known as wash-balls.
Cut the soap into fine shavings, dry, and powder it. Dissolve in a mixture of equal parts of alcohol and water by the aid of a water-bath. When the greater part of the alcohol has been evaporated, add a corresponding quantity of glycerine.
White tallow scraps, 20 lbs.; essence of bergamot, 1 oz.; carvi, 6 drs.; cloves, 4 drs.; thyme, 1/2 oz.
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